Creating Headings and Chapters Using the Rules of Chicago Manual of Style
by Peter Gallagher
If you are writing a paper using the rules of Chicago Manual of Style, you will encounter various style requirements for separating blocks of text within the body text of your paper. You may need to decide on headings or chapters, based on two elements: 1) the type of paper that you are writing; and 2) how you want to organize your information.
Let's first discuss using Headings in your paper because this is more tricky.
Chicago Style lets you use headings to organize your paper more coherently. Organizing headings is similar to outlining because the end result creates a coherent layout of differing levels of headings and subheadings. You don't number each heading as you do with an outline, but Chicago Style lets you use up to five varying levels of headings and subheadings.
Here is how to format headings:
FIRST LEVEL. Center the first level headings above their correlated text blocks. Use headline-style capitalization. You are allowed to use bold-face, italics, or underline text.
SECOND LEVEL. Center the second level heading in headline-style capitalization in standard text. Do NOT use italics, bold, or underline text.
THIRD LEVEL. Left-align the third level heading, using headline-style capitalization. You can use bold-face, italics, or underline text.
FOURTH LEVEL. If creating a fourth level heading, change to sentence-style capitalization. Left-align the text. Do NOT use any bold-face, italics, or underline text.
FIFTH LEVEL. The fifth level of heading requires you to indent the heading, using it like a lead-in sentence to a paragraph. Put a period at the end of this heading. You can use italics, bold-face, or underline text. Use sentence-style capitalization.
Here is an example of what five levels of headings look like in a thesis, dissertation or academic paper using Chicago Style:
The first four headings require you to insert a blank line before and after each heading for emphasis. If you use less than five levels of headings, you can use any of the heading levels, provided that you stay consistent to the order of the headings.
For instance, you can use the 1st and 3rd heading levels, in that order, when you have a two-heading arrangement.
You can use the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th heading levels, in that order, when you have a three-heading arrangement.
However, you cannot use the 4th, 1st, and 5th heading levels, in that order, for a three-heading arrangement.
Three last rules relating to headings: First, if you center a heading that is over 48 characters, then you must divide the heading into two or more separate lines. Single-space these lines. List them in an inverted pyramid, as shown below.
Will Stimulant Fiscal Development
Second, divide the left-aligned headings into multiple lines, if the heading stretches across more than 50% of the page. Single-space all of these lines, and try to split them uniformly.
Expenditures in Telecommunications in Europe
Will Stimulant Remarkable Fiscal Development
Third and final rule: never end a page with a subhead; instead, bring it over to the next page.
If you are adding many different ideas and arguments to a thesis paper or dissertation, then Chicago Style lets you use Chapters to simplify the layout and organization of your paper.
Start each chapter on a new page. Chapter titles often contain two components: 1) Add the word "CHAPTER" along with the number of the chapter as one component; and 2) Follow it with a more detailed title consisting of a few wordsthis offers the reader a glimpse into the broad topic that the chapter will discuss.
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS IN EUROPE
When creating chapters, you can leave out the word "CHAPTER" and simply list its number. Always arrange Chapters in consecutive order. Do not skip numbers. You can also choose one of three styles to list chapter numbers: 1) spell out the number; 2) use an Arabic numeral; or 3) use a Roman numeral.
Instead of using headings to support subtopics within a Chapter, you can split Chapters into segments. To identify a segment, simply use the word "PART" and add the number of the segment. Similar to Chapters, you must list Parts in consecutive order. Do NOT jump numbers. If you decide to use Arabic numerals for numbering each Chapter, then you need to use Roman numerals for each Part, and vice versa, as detailed below.
© Peter Gallagher, Brian Scott, LousyWriter.com
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