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Creating In-Text Citations Based on the Rules of Chicago Manual of Style
by Brian Scott
Citing sources thoroughly and accurately is necessary to avoid any instances of (accidental) plagiarism or using facts and quotes as your own. Each time you take an "idea" from a "source material"a book, a journal, a website, a government handout, etc.you must credit the original author or publisher if you use it in your paper. "Citing the source" means crediting the creator of the source material. If you take a quotation or piece of dialogue from another source, you are also responsible for listing that source in your paper. You need to develop a habit for listing all sources so that you can guide readers and reviewers of your paper to the precise location of the information, should they want to learn more. Providing a thorough list of sources shows your dedication and tenacity in developing a credible and trustworthy paper.
Citing sources based on the rules of the Chicago Manual of Style is a two-step process. The first step is to put the citation in the main text where you've included the cited material. This first step lets you cite the source in one of three ways: 1) as an in-text citations, 2) as a footnote, or 3) as an endnote. The second step is to include the same citation on a separate sheet of paper called a Reference List or a Bibliography page. This page, added to the end of your paper, lists all of your cited works. If you decide to use endnotes, you can forfeit the Bibliography page as it is not required (even though most academic papers use one).
In this article, I will cover in-text citations (the most popular style of citations), which you add in the main text of your paper. Chicago Style sometimes refers to in-text citations as "parenthetical references."
You can choose a few styles of in-text citations within the text, according to the structure of the sentence, as displayed in these examples:
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE A).
Add the name of the author within the sentence, followed by the year of publication enclosed in parentheses.
The Kennedy Study (2011) suggests that scientific developments stimulate financial expansion.
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE B).
You can enclose the name of the authors in parentheses with the year of publication, based on your sentence structure. Do NOT use any punctuation inside the parentheses.
Some financial reports show that scientific developments stimulate financial expansion (Kennedy 2011).
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE C).
If can't find a date of publication, use "n.d."which stands for "no date."
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments stimulate financial expansion (Kennedy n.d.).
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE D).
If you have multiple authors, separate them with commas and the word "and" enclosed in parentheses. If you have over three authors, use the word "et al." after the primary author.
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments stimulate financial development (Kennedy, Howard, Bernard 2011).
A number of financial surveys point out that engineering innovations trigger global financial progression (Kennedy et al. 2011).
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE E).
If you have multiple sources from the same author or sources from multiple authors with the same last name, you'll have to list part of the title of the work or the organization, along with the author. You also can add "a" and "b" to the year of publication, should you have two sources from the same author published in the same year.
Some economic studies indicate that technological advancements spur economic growth (Jones Economic Growth Study, 2003).
Other economic studies show that investing in technological research will benefit the economy, too (Jones Technology and the Economy, 2003).
AUTHOR-DATE (EXAMPLE F).
If you must cite a source with no author, specify a reduced form of the title or the institution that developed the source. Use the identical format as with the author.
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments spark financial development (Penn State College 2011).
II. FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES
If you choose footnotes or endnotes rather than the author-date style, you'll have to insert numbers within the main text to associate the source material with the footnote or endnote. Use an Arabic number with each source, either in brackets, parentheses, or superscript. Use the Arabic numbers in consecutive order.
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments spark financial development. 
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments spark financial development. (1)
Several financial reports suggest that scientific developments spark financial development. 1
Specify each footnote at the bottom of the same page where you have cited the source. Use a vertical line (referred to as a "separator") to split the main text from the footnote(s). Place all endnotes at the end of all the pages of the main text. Indent each footnote or endnote. Use single-spacing, with an empty space between each footnote or endnote. Once you've listed the source in an endnote or footnote, you can abbreviate the author's name and title of the work in succeeding listings. Add a superscript number or a number with a period to introduce the footnote.
1. Kennedy, Stephen. ...
1 Kennedy, Stephen. ...
© Peter Gallagher, Brian Scott, LousyWriter.com