Creating a Bibliography Page in Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian Style
by Peter Gallagher
Chicago Manual of Style requires you to create a Bibliography page to list every source that you had used to write your paper. Unfortunately, you can't just throw down the title of publication and name of author in your own way. You have to comply with a mixture of style rules to list your sources uniformly. The type of source will dictate the style of formatting. In this article I will show you the most common format for citing sources. When you master this technique, you will find citing different sources very easy to format.
A) ALPHABETIZING. You will need to alphabetize your sources. List the sources by the last name of the author. When alphabetizing your sources, ignore any spaces in the last name. If you have an author with more than one source, sort them either by: 1) the dates in which they were published; or 2) by alphabetizing the titles of the sources. Once you've selected the type of sorting for multiple sources from one author, you must use it throughout your Bibliography page.
B) AUTHORS. List the last name of the author, followed by the first name and middle name (if the author often uses it). If you have more than one author for a source, list each one separately. List the first author by last name, then by first name. List successive authors by first name, then by last name. If you have to list more than one author, isolate them by commas, with the word "and" before the final author in the list.
C) CAPITALIZATION. Use headline-style capitalization with all titles in the Bibliography page.
D) INDENTION. After the first line of each source, indent each next line about one-half inch, making a hanging indention for each source.
E) SPACING. You may single-space each entry in the Bibliography, providing an empty space between entries.
II. BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES
Here are a few illustrations for specifying different sources in Chicago Style. (These illustrations do not adopt the indention rules.)
ARTICLES. If sourcing material from a newspaper or a magazine, list the author, title of the article (in quotations), the name of the periodical (in italics), date of publication, and page numbers.
Edwards, Brian A. "Authorities Acquire Technology." New York Times, 19 October 2011, C1.
A journal article has slightly different formatting. Make sure to add the issue number and the issue date before the page number (s).
Edwards, Brian A. "The Financial Repercussion of Telecommunications." Journal of Industrial Growth 6 (July 2010): 121-4.
BOOKS. Provide the author's name, the title of the book (italicized), the publisher's location and name, and the date of publication. Omit the the page numbers that you used as a source.
Edwards, Brian A. and David Q. Jones. Industrial Development in South Africa. New York: Hearst Inc. Publishers, 2009.
GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT. Most documents published by (federal and state) governments typically don't provide an author; in this case, list the governmental division and italicize the title.
U.S. Department of the Treasury. Financial Growth Projection, 2008-2011. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 2012.
INTERNET SITE. List the name of the author, if known; title of the online article or Web page (in quotations); name of website; date of publication, if known; Internet address (URL); and the date that you retrieved it (in parentheses).
Edwards, Brian A. "Identifying Technology's Function in Financial Expansion." Economic Growth, September 11, 2008, http://www.URL.com (accessed June 12, 2011).
SCHOLARLY WORK. If sourcing material from a published thesis or dissertation, list the name of the author, the title (in quotations), the type of paper, the name of the school, and the year of publication.
Tulkin, Scott. "Retirement Plans for Baby Boomers." Ph.D. diss., State University, 2009.
III. IRREGULAR SITUATIONS
SAME AUTHOR, MULTIPLE SOURCES. If you wind up with multiple sources from the same author, you can omit repeating the author's name. Instead, use a solid horizontal line to replace the author's name. Make the horizontal line visibly longer than the hanging indention of the source, about three-quarters inch to one inch in size. If you have another source that lists multiple authors, you will need to input the first author's name once more. The only instance you can use the horizontal line is when all authors coincide with the previous work in the list. Observe the examples below. The first two have the same single author; the last two have the same pair of authors.
Edwards, Brian A. "State Governments Buy Technology." New York Times, 17 July 2009, C2.
_________. "The Financial Influence of Technology." Journal of Economic Growth 17 (April 2007): 121-5.
Edwards, Brian A. and David Q. Jones. Financial Expansion in Europe. New York: Jackson Brothers Publishing Co., 2010.
_________. Economic Downtrend in Europe. New York: Jackson Brothers Publishing Co., 2011.
III. EXTRA INFORMATION
Lastly, for supplementary details on formatting sources in a Reference List, check out either The Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian's A Manual for Writers. Both manuals cover a multitude of scenarios for listing sources within a bibliography. The www.chicagomanualofstyle.org website also has a repository of valuable resources.
© Peter Gallagher, Brian Scott, LousyWriter.com
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