An academic paper (such as a thesis, exposition, or a research report) usually demands that you comply with numerous formatting, style, and structure rules. These rules establish an organized structure for your paper, offering your professor a coherent way to read and analyze your paper's ideas and concepts and to evaluate the credibility of your arguments. These types of
rules also render a canonical, widely-accepted formula for citing your sources, and thus evading accidental plagiarism of material. Deciding on which "manual of style
" to adopt is a judgment that you and/or your professor must make. A few distinct common styles prevail, consisting of MLA Style
(used for humanities and liberal arts), APA Style
, and Chicago Manual of Style
Typically, you use a style according to the topic of your paper. Each style handles the format of the paper a tad differently to comply with quotation requirements for the topic. Herein
we'll examine the similarities and differences between APA Style
and Chicago Manual of Style
. I. PICKING YOUR STYLE
If your professor fails to choose the style, then select a style most suitable for your situation. CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE.
Generally, Chicago Style
works effectively as an all-inclusive style for all varieties of topics and papers. The Chicago Manual of Style
, published by The University of Chicago Press
, administers the rules for citing sources and formatting papers. Visit www.chicagomanualofstyle.org
for complete information. Kate Turabian
, the dissertation assistant at the University of Chicago
for more than 30 years, produced the famous, "A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
," providing students and researchers with supplementary guidance. The two stylesChicago Style
and Turabian Style
are nearly exact, with only a few variations. Both styles are often merged together to embody one style. APA STYLE.
Subjects connected to the social sciences (i.e.
criminal justice, economics, law, nursing and psychology) work best with APA Style
. The American Psychological Association
is the originator of the APA Style
. You can go to the organization's website at www.apastyle.org
for more information. "The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
" contains the complete guidelines for using APA Style
. II. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOTH STYLES
Numerous formatting discrepancies exist between Chicago Manual of Style and APA Style. Pick the style that will let you format and dispense your material to your readers in the most effective and reliable way. IN-TEXT CITATIONS.
Many discrepancies between the two styles include in-text citations. Both styles incorporate the
last name of the author and a page number in parentheses for the in-text citation. APA Style
also contains the year of publication of the source, but Chicago Style
does not. Chicago Style
lets you use footnotes, instead of in-text citations, to cite your sources. Using a footnote lets you connect the material to the original source, usually with superscript Arabic numbers. A footnote specifies more details about each source compared to an in-text citation. Footnotes appear only on the page that includes the content that you have to cite. When applying footnotes,
you don't always need to add a bibliography, although most authors use both.
An in-text citation, on the other hand, gives only a minimal size of general details about the source. Readers use the in-text citation to locate the complete source material in the Bibliography
or Reference List
If you decide to use Chicago Style
, you can use either footnotes or in-text citations. APA Style
only permits in-text citations. PAGE NUMBERS.
Both styles tell you to put the page number in the upper right corner
of each page. With APA Style
, you need to add a running title to the left of the page number on each page. A running title is a two or three-word extract of your paper's title. With Chicago Style
, you only include the page number; and if a page has a chapter heading, you must include the page number along the bottom of the page, rather than in the upper right corner. REFERENCE LIST FORMAT.
Both styles mandate that you include the full last name of the author(s) in each entry when specifying your sources on the Reference List
page or Bibliography
page. APA Style
also mandates that you also include the initials of the first and middle name of each author. In Chicago Style
, you must spell out the complete first and middle name of each author. (The middle name info is not required.)
© Peter Gallagher
, Brian Scott