Participles and gerunds are identical in form, but differ in case.
Both end in ing
for the present tense, and usually in ed
for the past tense. The participle
is a verbal adjective and always modifies some noun or pronoun; the action it expresses is a limiting circumstance. The gerund
verbal noun and connects with a noun or pronoun only by the use of a preposition or the possessive case; the action it expresses may be important enough to attract attention.
We form a participle
from a verb and use it like an adjective. The word participle
is derived from the Latin word particeps,
a partaker of.
The participle partakes of
the nature of the verb and the adjective. (1)
An active participle ends in ing
"A racoon running
up a tree stump." EX.
"The police officer, noticing
the gas leak." EX.
"I was not at all happy, supposing
that I had been called those names."
(In the last sentence supposing
. The term "active" refers only to the form; it does not mean that the participle has an object.)(2)
A passive participle ends usually in d
"The lessons taught
by English teachers." EX.
"The words of an author spoken
by a reader." EX.
at midnight." EX.
"Like a window struck
by rocks." (3)
Participles are often
"The youngest brother, having been silenced
by money." EX.
"My wife, being elated
by his kind words." Participle: Detecting the forgery, the cashier refused to accept the check. Gerund: After refusing payment, the cashier notified the manager. Gerund:
the forgery undoubtedly prevented serious problems.