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THE PARTS OF SPEECH [ ? ]
> Adjectives
> Adverbs
> Articles
> Conjunctions
> Nouns
> Pronouns
> Prepositions
> Verbs : Verbals
> Vowels : Consonants
CHEAT SHEETS
> Violations of English Words
> Homonyms
> Homogeneous words
> Possessive nouns
HOW TO WRITE BETTER
> Ad Copy
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PLAIN ENGLISH WRITING ( What is? )
> Plain English Material
> Jargon and Legalese
> Active Voice
> Plain English Gobbledygook
> Using plain English
WRITING STYLES
> APA Style
> MLA Style
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GRAMMAR ( What is? )
> The English Grammar
> Plain English Style
> Most confusing English Words
GRAMMAR MISTAKES
> Attraction
> ALONE (usage)
> AND relative
> Broken Construction
MISUSED ENGLISH WORDS
> Aggravating, Irritating
> Both, Each, Every
> Continual, Continuous
> Decided, Decisive
> Show all
CAPITALIZATION ( What is? )
> Book Titles
> First Words
> Titles of People
PUNCTUATION ( What is? )
> Apostrophe
> Colon
> Comma
> Dash
FIGURES OF SPEECH
> What is a figure of speech?
> the Simile
> the Metaphor
> Personification
WORD CLASSES
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ALPHABET : Letters : Vowels : What are Consonants? : Pronunciation : Words and Syllables

The English Alphabet—
Pronunciation

English AlphabetAll the vowels, and some of the consonants, have several sounds in the English language.

SHORT SOUNDS
a, as in bad, bag, bat.
e, as in bed, beg, bet.
i, as in bid, big, bit.
o, as in odd, bog, fog.
u, as in bud, bug, hut.

LONG SOUNDS
a, as in face, fate, fame.
e, as in me, we, see.
i, as in pine, mind, child.
o, as in no, go, note.
u, as in tune, mute, tube.

LONG ITALIAN
a, as in bar, far, car.

SHORT ITALIAN
a, as in ask, class, last.
a, as in her, err, earn.

Long oo, as in coo, too, moon.

Short oo, as in book, cook, rook.

DIPHTHONGS
oi, as in oil, toil.
oy, as in hoy, toy, boy.
ou, as in our, out.
ow, as in cow, how.

EQUIVALENTS, EACH TO EACH
a, as in liar, friar.
e, as in her.
i, as in fir, sir, bird.
o, as in word, work, worm.
u, as in urn, urge, burn.
y, as in myrtle.

EQUIVALENTS
a = o in odd, as in wad, was, wand
e = a in fade, as in they, eight
o = oo in coo, as in do, to, move
o = oo in book, as in wolf, woman
u = oo in coo, as in rule, rude, runic.

CORRELATIVES
a, in air, care, correlative of a in at.
a, long in all, ball, awl, correlative of o in odd.

VOWEL EQUIVALENTS
Long a, day, aid, they, veil, break, gauge.
Italian a, aunt, heart, guard, sergeant, bazaar.
a (in care), pair, pear, prayer, there, their, Aaron.
a (in all), awl, fraud, bought, broad, awe.

Long e, eat, beef, chief, deceive, marine, key, people.
Short e, bread, said, any, heifer, leopard, friend, guest/says.

Long i, by, die, guide, height, buy, aisle, my, eye, bayou.
Short i, lynx, duties, build, certain, busy, pretty, been, women, foreign, carriage, tortoise.

Long o, boat, blow, four, foe, door, sew, beau, yeoman.
Short o, was, wadding, knowledge.
Long oo, do, shoe, group.

Long u, you, yew, ewe, beauty, view, lieu, neuter, juice, hue.
Short u, son, touch, blood, does, porpoise, cushion, dungeon, righteous, gracious.
u (in rule), grew, true, fruit.

We also have a number of digraphs or combinations of vowels or consonants which have but one sound:

ai in rain
eo as in people
ou as in soup
ou as in soul
ph as in phalanx
ch as in chorus or chair

c has two sounds, hard before a, o, and u, as in cat, cot, and cut, and soft before e, i, and y, as in cell, city, and cycle.

g has two sounds, hard before a, o, and u, as in gate, gone, and gun, soft before e, i, and y, as in gem, gin, and gyve, although it is sometimes hard before i as in girl.

ch is sometimes soft as in chair and arch, and sometimes hard as in choir.

th has two sounds, soft, or surd, as in thin and death, and hard, or sonant, as in then and smooth.

s has two sounds, soft, or surd, as in soft and this, and hard, or sonant, as in has and wise.

We have, therefore, twenty-six letters to help us express fifty or more sounds, not counting the digraphs and diphthongs.

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ALPHABET : Letters : Vowels : What are Consonants? : Pronunciation : Words and Syllables





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